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Jelenleg 5 bejegyzés található cyber defence cimkével

NATO cyber defence ahead of Warsaw Summit

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The International Conference on Cyber Conflict (CyCon) is one of the world’s most significant conferences dealing with cyber security, organized by the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence in Tallinn, Estonia. This year’s event – held between 31 May and 3 June, focusing on cyber power – included the participation of Gábor Berki and Dániel Berzsenyi, representatives of the Doctoral School of Military Engineering and the Centre for Strategic and Defence Studies respectively.

CyCon’s origin goes back to 2009 and has been enjoying the participation of 500 political and strategic decision-makers, high ranking military officers and cyber security experts each year. Similarly to other renowned conferences, CyCon also offers simultaneous presentations and round table discussions, so that participants could attend the discussions they most prefer in various topics. Day Zero of this year’s Cycon was a day of workshop when apart from the education of cyber defence and the management of cyber crises, the practical aspects of smart phones’ criminalistical examination was also on the agenda.

Nearly all participants of Day 1 focused on the possibility of NATO’s leaders declaring cyber sphere as the fifth dimension of warfare at the upcoming Warsaw Summit. Estonian President Toomas Hendrik Ilves stated his expectations regarding NATO’s decision in this matter, which was further emphasized by the words of Czech Defence Minister Martin Stropnicky who reminded that nations should be ready to develop their defence capabilities in the fifth dimension of warfare as well. Admiral Manfred Nielson, Deputy Supreme Allied Commander Transformation (DSACT) mentioned the significance of understanding and handling cyber sphere separately from the traditional four dimensions of warfare. Several high ranking military officers agreed that while cyber sphere is a novel area, it is not special or unique. There was also an agreement in that future military operations will utilize cyber sphere regardless of whether it will have become the fifth declared dimension of warfare or not. On the other hand, they considered the acceptance of cyber sphere as the fifth dimension important, in that it could advance the formation of NATO’s comprehensive cyber defence and cyber operations policy. Accordingly, the first day’s presentations also focused on force projection in cyber sphere, the defence of weapon systems, the state cyber activities, as well as the cyber threats related to air traffic.

Day of CyCon was hallmarked by the participation of such renowned experts as Thomas Rid, professor at King’s College London, Martin C. Libicki, professor and senior management scientist at RAND Graduate School, and Mikko Hypponen computer security expert, research director of F-Secure. The speakers highlighted the development of interactions between humans and machines from the 1940s, the role of information warfare in today’s conflicts, as well as the transformation of the capability of deterrence in the Internet’s world of no geographical boundaries. Libicki described cyber warfare along 5 characteristics with it being extremely volatile, unpredictable and not kinetic, difficult to interpret, and persistent phenomenon. Discussions after the presentations focused on the political changes related to cyber security, as well as on the Russian cyber operations, and the advantages and drawbacks of the Snowden-leakage.

Day 3 of CyCon provided an opportunity for participants to recap and discuss what they have learnt and experienced throughout the conference. The participants have concluded that several governments most likely misinterpret the definition of cyber power, and as a result focus too much on tactical achievements and do not deal with the long-term effects of operations. The increased role of short-term successes is also highlighted by the fact that instead of lasting cyber conflicts, the incidents are related to espionage or temporary disturbance of systems. Jan Neutze, Director of Cybersecurity at Microsoft, focused on the role of norms within cyber sphere, and compared the approached of government and industry, whereas David Sanger reminded that the arms race within cyber sphere sets a serious arms control and deterrence issue for humanity. The final presentation of CyCon2016 was held by Jaan Tallinn, founder of Skype, who mentioned that artificial intelligence may have negative consequences if humanity does not prepare itself for its utilization in time.

One of the most important lessons of the four-day conference was that challenges coming from cyber sphere cannot be ignored, as that would lead to lagging behind which could lead to national security challenges and threats already in the short-run. The management of these challenges, and the establishment of appropriate defences require efforts that government cannot display on its own but with the inclusion of industry and academia. Should NATO’s Warsaw Summit declare cyber sphere as the fifth dimension of warfare, it will initiate such changes within the Alliance that will be in relation to the cyber capabilities of all member states, including Hungary.

Cooperation with Marymount University

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The National University of Public Service (NUPS) signed a Memorandum of Agreement with Marymount University (United States of America) on 7 March 2016. In addition to the leadership of the respective universities, Mr. Sándor Pintér, Minister of Interior of Hungary, H.E. Colleen Bell, Ambassador of the United States of America in Budapest, and H.E. Réka Szemerkényi, Ambassador of Hungary in Washington D.C. were also present at the signing ceremony.

In accordance with its Institutional Development Plan, NUPS strives to be an active participant of international relations in higher education and research in alliance with leading universities around the globe. Hence, NUPS is in strong cooperation with several universities in neighbouring countries and across the world, with transatlantic relations being further strengthened through the agreement with Marymount University – emphasized Prof. Dr. András Patyi, Rector of NUPS.

According to Professor Patyi, the cooperation with Marymount University provides an excellent opportunity for Hungarian students and lecturers to gain insight into the world of American higher education and research. He reminded that the signed agreement shows “the cooperation of two special institutions, in two special areas of science” with the document primarily focusing on criminalistics, criminal investigation and cyber defence, offering the most modern opportunities in these areas for both partners. All of these efforts support NUPS in incorporating internationally competitive, compatible and un-to-date knowledge and best practices into its own programmes.

Professor Patyi emphasized that the United States of America is not only a great economical, political and military power but also a global centre of higher education and research. The Rector of NUPS is most honoured that the cooperation between the two institutions enjoy such high attention from the respective states, noting that this also bounds us to reach true achievements for both nations via this agreement.

Matthew D. Shank, President of Marymount University added that he hopes the cooperation between the universities will represent great value in Hungarian-American relations as well. President Shank emphasized that the achievements of their strong professional relationship with the FBI, CIA and NCIS could be most beneficial to lecturers and students of NUPS alike.

Minister of Interior Sándor Pintér added that the effective fight against crime requires better organization and a higher level of knowledge, while also reminding of other important agreements for a better understanding of the theoretical background of the fight against crime. This intention has led to the foundation of the Central European Police Academy (MEPA) and the International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) through the cooperation with Austria and the U.S. respectively. In addition, the centre of the European Police College (CEPOL) was set in Budapest in October 2014.

Minister Pintér also mentioned the 2001 declaration against cyber crime which was issued in Budapest and currently has more than 42 member nations. According to the Minister, the agreement between the two countries leads to new knowledge and new opportunities in the fight against crime, thus providing greater security to both Hungary and the United States.

Preparation for public service receives great emphasis in the education within both countries, hence the inter-institutional cooperation is regarded as one with great opportunities according to H.E. Colleen Bell. The Ambassador of the United States of America in Budapest expects practical partnership in the area of criminalistics and cyber defence alike that could further develop the relationship of the two countries. She highlighted that cyber threat is a serious challenge for both nations in terms of national and economic security as well.

“The currently signed university agreement also strengthens the two countries’ academic relationship which can only be beneficial for the cooperating parties” – said H.E. Réka Szemerkényi, Ambassador of Hungary in Washington D.C. in her opening remarks. According to the Ambassador, both countries more and more face the new challenges in security policy, to which university cooperation can provide effective scientific answers. She highlighted that the U.S. has significant experiences in the area of forensic sciences, whereas the same can be said of Hungary in the area of cyber security, hence she expects a mutually beneficial cooperation between the two partner institutions.

The agreement, signed by the leaders of the respective universities, provides the opportunity for the mobility of lecturers and researchers, for participation in joint researches and professional programs primarily in the area of criminalistics and cyber defence. The transfer of knowledge will also be materialized in the further training courses of public officials, thereby contributing to the success of practical international cooperation in the fight against crime.

Marymount University was founded in 1950 as an independent Catholic institution. Providing several Bachelor, Master and PhD programs, the university has a colourful community of approximately 3600 students coming from nearly 70 countries, and has a great relationship with the Hungarian community in the U.S. capital. Students of the university can participate inter alia in medical and legal studies. Marymount University is also popular among students due to it being only a few minutes away from Washington D.C. one of the world’s most influential capitals.

NATO cyber defence course at NUPS

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NATO’s Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence held its first offsite course in Budapest between 25-29 January 2016. The course titled “Introductory Digital Forensics” was jointly organized by the Hungarian Defence Staff CIS and IS Directorate and NUPS, and was held at the Faculty of Military Sciences and Officer Training at NUPS.

The main target group of the event consisted of professionals and system administrators whose job is to detect and manage the anomalies occurring in IT systems and to efficiently conduct researches in this area. Dr.(COL) Károly Kassai, Director of the Hungarian Defence Staff CIS and IS Directorate emphasized the importance of continuous development in the field of national cyber defence and their relevance for the Hungarian Defence Forces. The support of national cyber defence also requires inter-institutional cooperation which also includes the National University of Public Service.

In fact, the involvement of NUPS also supported NATO CCD COE’s goal of handing over the entire training package to the sponsor nation in the future, thereby realizing the “train the trainers” concept.

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NUPS participates in NATO’s cyber defence researches

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Last week saw the publication of the report reviewing cyber defence organizations in Hungary, prepared by Prof. Dr. László Kovács, Vice-Dean for Science and International Affairs at the Faculty of Military Sciences and Officer Training of NUPS and Gergely Szentgáli from the Hungarian Ministry of Defence.

The document displays the domestic information society’s level of development, briefly reviews the situation of domestic e-government, and provides an elaborative introduction of the Hungarian strategic documents on cyber defence and the related legal environment. The study has a separate focus on organizations that provide cyber defence in Hungary.

The situation of NATO members regarding cyber defence is mapped by experts under the leadership of NATO’s Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence. This study is a part of a series that displays the national cyber defence organizations of NATO allies, the tasks of these organizations, and ultimately these countries’ capabilities in cyber defence, thereby providing an opportunity to compare their situation in cyber security.

The study reviewing domestic cyber defence organizations is available here.

International cyber course at NUPS

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The National University of Public Service – in cooperation with the Hungarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade and the Ministry of Defence – organized and hosted an international course on cyber security and defence within the framework of the European Security and Defence College (ESDC) between 27-29 May 2015.

The course provided a thorough and up-to-date view on the nature of information society, on the threats from cyber space and on the theoretical and practical background of the preparation for cyber defence, with the main target group of the event being experts delegated by the ministries of EU member states, EU agencies and relevant institutions.

The organizers under Course Director Dr. Anna Molnár, associate professor at the Faculty of International and European Studies, have gathered an excellent team ranging from experts from EU member states, the European External Action Service (EEAS), the European Defence Agency (EDA) to representatives from the private sector. The event was opened by Dr. Péter Tálas, Dean of the Faculty of International and European Studies, followed by the keynote speech of Péter Siklósi, Deputy State Secretary for Defence Policy and Planning at the Ministry of Defence.

The course commenced with an overview of the basic definitions of cyber security and cyber defence, the main international processes in this field, the EU’s cyber security strategy, as well as the cyber security policies of some EU member states.
The second day began with the review of the development and current issues of European cyber diplomacy. A separate panel focused on the least developed dimension of cyber security: the legal frameworks of this field. Furthermore, the private sector was represented by Alastair Teare, CEO of Deloitte Central Europe and Lajos Antal, Head of Cyber Risk Services at Deloitte Central Europe. While the discussions revealed that nowadays cyberspace connects the world better than commerce, they also pointed out the differences between private and public sector in cyber security and noted that PPP structured development projects and investments in this field contain great challenges.
On the final day, participants received information and data about the extent of crime in cyber space (e.g. the damages cause in recent years are estimated to be more than EUR 310 billion). Last but not least, the military aspect of the EU’s Foreign and Security Policy and the EU-NATO cooperation in cyber security was reviewed.

The three-day course was closed with a ceremony where all participants received their course certificates containing the signature of Federica Mogherini, High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy.