Similar to the previous years, Exercise Common Trail 2015 was held in Germany in the first two weeks of December. The exercise was organised and executed by the Führungsakademie der Bundeswehr (FüAkBw) in Hamburg, where 150 senior staff officers, represented 15 different nations and were the training audience for two Corps level joint staff elements. The main target of this NATO Crisis Response Exercise was to integrate and evaluate those senior staff officers whom had completed the one year module of their military service education.
Members of the Hungarian General Staff Training Course (Class-25) participated in the exercise as Corps level staff officers, using the present Comprehensive Operational Planning Directives (COPD) in their given tasks. Parallel to the members of the Host Nation Armed Forces, multinational Colonels, Lieutenant Colonels and Majors from Poland (NDU), France (Ecole De Guerre), USA (Forth Leavenworth), Italy (ISSMI) and from Belgium (RMA) executed common work throughout the two weeks session. Ensuring the success of the exercise, the FüAkBw invited and implemented senior mentors with previous experience from equal national and NATO level organisations. Lead by LTG/OF-8 VAN LOON, Ton (NDL ARMY), LTG/OF-8 PLOEGER, Freidrich W. (GER AF), VADM/OF-8 WITTHAUER, Hans J. (GER NAVY) all of the mentors provided superb support to the exercise reaching all of the goals set and enhanced the training’s excellent results.
It shall be considered interesting, that the host institution strongly relies on those recently retired subject matter experts. The well structured scenario – that included all of the experiences from the recent operational deployments – required comprehensive approach, the vital involvement of different civilian actors, proper planning, Information Operations (IO) supported, effect based military operations, kinetic and non-kinetic targeting tasks. These were included into both this and the last exercises (Common Effort) due to the experiences of the recent Libyan air operations.
Working in dominant positions, the members of the Hungarian Team participated in a well-organized, perfectly executed, multinational exercise in a great environment, hence will be able to connect all the experiences gathered to its Hungarian twin: The Sunny Africa 2016.
The Faculty of Military Sciences and Officer Training at NUPS was among the successful competitors to establish strategic partnership with other military higher education institutions in the framework of the Erasmus+ Programme. Preparations are already underway with the first transnational meeting held between 9-11 December in Wroclaw, Poland.
Through the Faculty of Military Sciences and Officer Training, NUPS is a member of an international consortium which is led by the Tadeusz Kościuszko Military Academy of Land Forces (Wroclaw, Poland) and includes the Theresan Military Academy (Wiener Neustadt, Austria), the University of Defence (Brno, Czech Republic) and the “Nicolae Balcescu” Land Forces Academy (Sibiu, Romania).
The participants’ joint project titled “Creating International Semester regarding Military Education Needs for Future Officers in Europe” is primarily aimed at boosting mobility particularly between military academies and higher education institutions within the EU. This would help cadets to gain additional skills and experience in an international environment while visiting partner institutions abroad.
Moreover, the project can advance the establishment of guidelines for coherent programmes in military education within the European Union. The ultimate goal of the project is to establish an international mobility semester among military higher education institutions thereby allowing cadets to study abroad without the additional obligation of passing programme differences.
The project of the consortium was accepted by the Polish National Agency of Erasmus+ Programme and received nearly EUR 220,000 support and is to be realized in 24 months until October 2017. The negotiations with consortium partners are already on their way. Accordingly, the project includes transnational project meetings (workshops) between members of the project management team in order to develop educational materials, and so-called multiplier events (such as conferences) where ideas on the international semester can be presented.
A very much European year is behind us – said H.E. Hashim Thaci, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kosovo in his speech held at the Assembly Hall of the Ludovika Campus of NUPS on 9 December 2015. In his presentation titled “Euro-Atlantic Efforts of Kosovo”, the Minister of Foreign Affairs reminded that 2015 not only marked the signature of the Stabilisation and Association Agreement with the EU but also border-agreements with Montenegro, Macedonia and Albania while negotiations are still in process with Serbia.
The diplomatic dialogue based on tolerance and cooperation shows that Kosovo’s place is indeed in the European Union – emphasized H.E. Hashim Thaci. He added that Kosovo would like to be regarded by the EU as any other country in the region, and for this is willing to make compromises. Although accession is a long process, the country has departed on the road to membership. Nevertheless, Kosovo views NATO as a partner as well, is a member of the international coalition combating ISIS, and actively fights against the spread of radical ideologies and terrorism.
Márton Schőberl, Director of the Institute of Foreign Affairs and Trade analysed the situation of Kosovo and stated that integration is a sensitive issue even if Hungary supports Kosovo’s efforts regarding the EU. In his view, the various unresolved issues set back the countries on the Balkans and that the matter is more complicated than it seems at first sight.
Dr. Nobert Kis, Vice-Rector for Continuing Education and International Affairs at NUPS emphasized the role of Kosovo regarding the issue of migration. Hashim Thaci said that although his country was a source of illegal migration, nowadays, the political situation is being settled with the intention to re-integrate the previously emigrated people into society as soon as possible. Regarding the illegal migration running through the country, the Minister of Foreign Affairs said a great attention is required. Kosovo dissociates from radical thoughts, while their active support can be punished by 5-15 years of prison in accordance with local laws.
The Ludovika Main Building was awarded with the Constructors’ Niveau Prize on 9 December 2015. The renowned acknowledgement was received by Dr. József Horváth Secretary-General of NUPS at this year’s final meeting of the National Federation of Hungarian Contractors.
The project, awarded with one of the greatest acknowledgements within the profession, was realized by the consortium of West Hungária Bau Ltd. and Épkar Ltd. in 2014. In addition to the prize, the acknowledgement is commemorated by a brass plate with bronze frames which will be placed at the main building next spring. The niveau prize was awarded to projects in various categories including public buildings, industrial and energetical establishments, environmental and water establishments, as well as the restoration and rehabilitation of monuments and historical buildings.
The former Ludovika Academy’s restoration took one year and was realized within the time and financial framework determined by the related contract. The main building’s renovation cost HUF 4.7 billion, and the establishment was officially handed over to NUPS on 31 March 2014 by Prime Minister Viktor Orbán. The building has been increasingly populated step by step since then and has been hosting the Faculty of International and European Studies as of this year.
In addition to the Ludovika Campus Main Building, 11 buildings were awarded with the Constructors’ Niveau Prize in 2015. The awarding committee focused on various aspects such as the quality of the engineering and technical implementation, the cost-efficiency of the project, and the quality of cooperation between the partners participating in the construction.
On 2 December 2015, one month after her initial visit, Colleen Bell has delivered yet another lecture as part of this year’s last Ambassador’s Forum in the Assembly Hall of the National University of Public Service. In her speech titled “NATO Today and Tomorrow: Active Engagement, Modern Defense” the United States Ambassador to Hungary said that NATO should not be recognized as a simple conglomeration of nation states, but as a political and cultural coalition bound together by such shared goals as peace and prosperity. NATO is not a group fighting against a common enemy, she noted, but an “alliance of principles” inevitably maintaining an open door policy – which accounts for the future accession of Montenegro as well.
NATO needs to evolve constantly, said Colleen Bell. Having strong, reliable and enthusiastic partners are prerequisites to being agile and able to reflect on the new challenges of our times. In order to preserve its legitimacy, the organization has to be able to provide complex responses to humanitarian catastrophes similar to the November Paris shootings. The ambassador quoted Barack Obama, president of the United States: the Paris attack was not only an attack on the French capital, but an attack on all liberal democracies, Western cultures and the world itself. Active engagement is of high priority which is reflected well in the Readiness Action Plan as accepted at the 2014 Wales summit, aiming at increasing the security level of the member states. Yet another Wales act has to be kept in mind, namely that of the Budget Control Act, requiring an annual 2% GDP military spend from the members by 2025. It is not enough to live by similar principles, NATO needs active participation – summarized Colleen Bell.
The Forum concluded in a roundtable discussion led by Dr. Boglárka Koller, NUPS Vice-Dean for Science and International Relations at the Faculty of International and European Studies, in the presence of Dr. Anna Péczeli, research fellow at the Center for Strategic and Defense Studies and Márton Ugrósdy, researcher at the Institute of Foreign Affairs and Trade. As it was said, the upcoming Warsaw summit shall concentrate on the possible EU-NATO conflicts, the consolidation of the Russian-Ukrainian relations and the establishment of a joint cyber defense strategy.
Prof. Dr. András Patyi, rector of NUPS, was pleased to voice his opinion regarding the event having remained worthy of the Ludovika name. As the prestigious guests and the invited experts discussed such major issues as migration or the future of the European Union, the Forum has remained what the organizers wished it will be: a place of complex cultural and political discourse.
With the title “Group Interest in Central Eastern European Company Law” an English-language conference was held on 11 November at the National University of Public Service. The event was organized by the Faculty of International and European Studies in cooperation with Societas CEE Company Law Research Network. We asked Prof. Martin Winner, president of Societas, about his opinions and experiences.
The conference on group interest in Central and Eastern European company law was organised in cooperation with Societas CEE Company Law Research Network. This Research Network is a relatively new organisation with a special geographic scope. What were the main reasons for the establishment of the Network and what are its main objectives?
What we saw when we decided to set up the network was that there was rather little international cooperation and networking among scholars from Central and Eastern Europe, and the idea of our network was to increase networking within company lawyers in CEE countries. Additionally, there are still some peculiar problems to these jurisdictions, which should also be in the focus of scholarly research – the network aims at putting these CEE issues in company law to the forefront.
Why was group interest in company law chosen as one of the first topics that Societas deals with? Are there any legal developments that make this choice particularly topical?
Actually, there are two developments. On the one side there are national developments. Many jurisdictions are changing their law in this respect towards a stronger recognition of the group interest. We have seen that for instance in the Czech Republic, which has approximated its law to the French Rozenblum doctrine at least to some extent, and we have also seen that in the new Hungarian company law where some changes to that respect have been made. Secondly, there are also developments on the European level: according to the current European Commission Action Plan on Company Law the recognition of group interest is a topic the Commission plans to deal with, and it is in the process of thinking about what precisely it is going to do. These two different tracks make the issue very topical at this stage.
Are there any special common issues related to group interest on a regional level or this problem is universal in nature?
It is also a regional issue for CEE countries because very often there is a cross-border aspect in company groups and as a matter of fact many local companies are subsidiaries of foreign parents. That is a very important issue in Central and Eastern Europe. But the basic problem of corporate groups and group interest and whether the group’s common interest should be recognised or it is just the interest of the subsidiaries that matters, that is in reality a very common issue all over Europe.
Are there any special lessons that countries in the region might learn from each other?
I think one important lesson is that you have to be very careful with legal transplants and not just copy foreign solutions, which seem to make sense, because at the end of the day they will not fit in very well with existing company law and other regulations. In addition, it is not just an issue of writing good new laws in the books but also people – especially judges, lawyers and businessmen – have to understand what the law is about: following up on legal changes is equally important. In general, I believe that an evolutionary approach is much better than revolution: I am in favour of change, but I prefer gradual change.
Societas already organised a workshop on the same topic in Vienna this February. What were the conclusions of this workshop and how does this conference build on that experience?
The idea of the workshop was to set out the common understanding of the issue. I think it is very important that before a conference people making the presentations generally know what precisely should be the common issue so they can address it better. A preparatory workshop is always very important to make a conference successful.
Do you consider the conference successful? How did it contribute to our understanding of the legal issues related the group interest? Are there any messages to take away from this meeting?
I think only conferences will help us to understand the different issues in the countries because publications are not easily accessible. As far as messages are concerned, it is a very important lesson that we have a lot of diversity in this area, and I am very hesitant to believe that just one act by the European legislator will help to overcome this diversity. So one lesson is that the European legislator should look at local traditions and local issues, and then must be very careful when intending to uproot them.
Is there a follow-up planned after the conference? Will Societas keep this topic on its agenda?
On the issue of corporate groups and group interest there is a publication planned but we of course also plan to follow up with further conferences. These will not directly touch group interest again but will cover other areas, but certainly there will be a follow up in the Societas Network.
What other issues is Societas planning to tackle in the near future?
We are currently thinking about two issues and we are in the process of deciding which one is going to be in the forefront. One issue is intra-group guarantees, i.e. guarantees usually by the subsidiary for the debts of the parent company which is to some extent related to the group interest but looks at it from a different angle. The second topic we are planning to look at is the corporate governance of publicly held companies, i.e. of companies owned by the State or by local authorities. Here of course we have specific corporate governance problems and international trends how they are recognised and dealt with. We would like to pick those up in the CEE context and see how we can contribute to the legal discourse.
The Faculty of Military Sciences and Officer Training (FMOT) of NUPS hosted a conference on the possible solutions for measuring the level of national defence and on the preparation of the Comprehensive Defence Index (CDI) on 19 November 2015. In his opening speech, Dr. (Col.) Gábor Boldizsár, Dean of FMOT reminded that the preparation of CDI is in its first stage with increased emphasis on the issues related to human resources.
Dr. Tamás Kaiser, Head of the Institute of the Science of the State and Governance highlighted the concept of the Good State as one of the aspects of defence, emphasizing that the establishment of the Good State will be efficient if governance is state-centric and if society displays adequate trust in the work of the state and the defence sector. Nonetheless, leadership has faced complex issues in the last few years. Many organizations create data bases for the analysis of these problems, however, the objectivity of these data bases is debatable and sometimes rely on outdated data.
Accordingly, there is a need for a national evaluation framework that can provide – via various indicators – a quantifiable and easy to interpret pieces of data. CDI is prepared with such method with the evaluation creating an own reliable, up-to-date data base which could be useful not only in describing the current situation but in further developing defence.
Colonel Boldizsár added that CDI is being improved further and further through the continuous negotiations and evaluations. The primary goal is the display of the status of the armed forces and the credible description of the situation of national defence, making the latter able for measurement. The core thought of the initiative is that the intention (political will) and capability (material and human resources) can lead jointly to active engagement, thus these three factors should be analyzed jointly when assessing the success of defence.
Subsequently, Dr. (Capt.) Balázs Forgács displayed the political determination of defence policy through Carl von Clausewitz’s theory on the relationship between the armed forces and the state, which carried forth the thought that activity does not occur without political will. Furthermore, in his presentation titled “Goals and Tasks in Relation to the State, Society and the Armed Forces”, Dr. József Kaló reminded that while “the armed forces do not directly create goods”, the balance of politics, society and the armed forces has a great importance in a state’s life. Should this balance be tipped, or should there be no continuous dialogue between the actors, the system will show faults.
Captain Krisztián Sztankai held a presentation on the interoperability of public education, whereas Dr. (Lt.Col.) László Ujházy talked about the importance of reservist system and the possibilities for utilizing the know-how of reservists in his presentation titled “Bridge between the Armed Forces and Society: the Role of Reservists and Reservist Alliances Today”. Dr. (Lt.Col.) Zoltán Jobbágy and Judit Stummer talked about the new supplies in human resources, the KatonaSuli programme and the results of the subject “Basics of national defence”. They reminded that although the opportunities in higher education could also lead students toward the reservist system, in most cases, they are not motivated to establish a legal contract on reservist status.
Dávid Kiss, PhD student at the Doctoral School of Military Sciences, held a presentation on the relationship between the armed forces and national economy, reminding the audience that since all countries view the spending on national defence as sensitive information, it is difficult to utilize such data in an open analysis. Closing the event, Ibolya Bokros Tünde focused her presentation on what kind of soldiers do the Hungarian Defence Forces require. Emphasizing the importance of human resources, she revealed the training opportunities of soldiers, the importance of gaining know-how and experience, as well as the necessity of language and professional trainings.
The National University of Public Service was ranked among the top three Hungarian higher education institutions for 2016 behind the Semmelweis University and Eötvös Loránd University. The ranking of Hungarian universities is done by HVG, a weekly magazine on world economy, based on student and lecturer excellence.
The scoring system on which the ranking is based considers various factors including: the number of full-time students who had submitted their application to the university as their first choice, the average number of points of those who were admitted to the university, the number of admitted applicants having successful B2 or C1 level language exams, the number of freshman with outstanding achievements from their studies in secondary school, the number and ratio of lecturers having academic degrees, the number of students for one lecturers having an academic degree, and the ratio of lecturers holding titles from the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
HVG’s 2016 list contains the ranking of more than forty programmes in ten areas of education. With its third position, NUPS “surpassed” such renowned universities and historical universities like the University of Szeged and the University of Pécs.
Her Excellency Maria Assunta Accili, Ambassador of Italy to Hungary, on the November meeting of the Ludovika Ambassador’s Forum spoke about the complexity of migration and addressed the European idea of solidarity. As she said, among the founding values of Europe we find hospitality, solidarity and charity. None of us should reject those who ask for help, but we have to know how to defend our borders by making a distinction between people in need and economic migrants.
Migration is a cyclic phenomenon – started the speech of the ambassador. While the early 1900s oversaw the emigration of nearly 24 million Italians hoping for a better life, by now Italy has become a transit or a target country. Today 5.5 million people out of a total population of 61 million might be labelled as migrants whereas 4.5 million Italians live abroad. Although the 8.2% ratio of aliens is slightly higher than the European average, Italy continues to grant citizenship for long-term residents. During last year, for example, the population has grown by 130,000 this way and the percentage of mixed marriages has reached 9.4% already. Italy is fortunate enough with the integration processes going on relatively peacefully, while the growth of the workforce accounts for an increase in the GDP as well, even in face of the governmental expenses. Immigrants usually fill positions that Italians would rather not: huge numbers of immigrants work in the agricultural and health sectors, however, they are at home with retail and commerce as well.
The picture is not all rosy though. Italy is a destination for refugees and illegal immigrants as well, so it is no wonder that the small island of Lampedusa has become the symbol of the present migration crisis. The ambassador said that the current international humanitarian catastrophe calls for the revision of priorities in Europe. Selfishness needs to be put aside, whilst despair and fear shall be diminished and we all have to encourage our fellow human beings in finding the possibility of a peaceful life. According to Maria Assunta Accili, we have to help the refugees, but primarily the causes of the problem shall be remedied as the majority of the refugees would prefer to stay at home if that was an option. For success in the long term, unified EU strategies have to be adopted and the European countries shall enter into partnerships with African and Asian countries based on effective asylum policies devoting special attention to sustainable relocation programmes. Uncontrolled migration is a challenge to the stability of the EU, summarized the ambassador, while migrants have to be managed, refugees have to be assisted.
The host of the evening, Anna Molnár, associate professor at NUPS International Relations and Security Studies quoted Federica Mogherini, the current High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy: “any narrative of posing “us” and “them” makes no sense at all today. Christians vs. Muslims. Europeans vs. Arabs. Migrants vs. Locals. It is not the Other who will tear our societies apart; it is the fear of the Other that can destroy our societies.” The participants of the closing roundtable session discussing possible solutions to the migration crisis were Dr. Balázs Vízi, NUPS lecturer at the Department of International and European Law and Colonel László Szép.
On 4 November 2015 the Central European Forum on Military Education (CEFME) held its annual meeting in Budapest. As the role of the host was taken up by the National University of Public Service, the main leaders of the Austrian, Croatian, Czech, Estonian, Slovakian, Slovenian and Polish military academies gathered in the Ludovika building’s Hunyadi rooms. First in line to greet the representatives was Dr. Norbert Kis Vice-Rector for Continuing Education and International Affairs. In his speech, he stressed the fact what an honour it was for NUPS to host the event as it is within the university’s intentions to serve as an exemplary model for other institutions of higher education. Providing a uniquely integrated training for its students, by introducing a compulsory BA module about public service, NUPS has opened the “university of cooperation” for both military and civilian undergraduates.
Major General Prof. Bogusław Pacek, Rector-Commandant of the National Defence University in Warsaw, also addressed the importance of cooperation. Summing up his experiences regarding the 2014-15 Polish presidency, he welcomed the results of the rectors’ meeting held in Warsaw last year. Among other joyful novelties, a favourable outcome was that the Erasmus+ programme became available for military students, the central website of CEFME was launched, and the organization joined the NATO DEEP programme focusing on the improvement of military education. Following his speech, Agnieszka Legucka Vice-Rector for Student Affairs at the National Defence University of Warsaw reported on last year’s student conference which had two NUPS delegates. Although the event was considered a huge success, she said that the end of the conference brought about a break in the international activities. One lucky circumstance contradicting the lessening tendency was the publication of NUPS-student Bálint Störk’s study in the Security and Defense Quarterly, the scientific journal of the CEFME countries. Brigadier General Rudolf Urban, Vice-Rector for External Relations at the University of Defence in Brno shared the said views. He also added that better information transfer between the CEFME partners is needed for the improvement of the organization. As he said, its vision, mission, and responsibilities have to be clarified.
Last to be called to the microphone by the chair of the forum, Colonel Dr. Gábor Boldizsár, Dean at the Faculty of Military Sciences and Officer Training, was Prof. Dr. András Patyi, Rector of the National University of Public Service. After thanking the trust of the colleagues, he touched back on the opening lines of Norbert Kis and added that NUPS is not showing the only way ahead, but providing a model to learn from. In the presence of the Rector, as the closing of the event, the CEFME presidency was formally handed over: the organization shall keep running under the governance of Croatia next year.
Last week saw the publication of the report reviewing cyber defence organizations in Hungary, prepared by Prof. Dr. László Kovács, Vice-Dean for Science and International Affairs at the Faculty of Military Sciences and Officer Training of NUPS and Gergely Szentgáli from the Hungarian Ministry of Defence.
The document displays the domestic information society’s level of development, briefly reviews the situation of domestic e-government, and provides an elaborative introduction of the Hungarian strategic documents on cyber defence and the related legal environment. The study has a separate focus on organizations that provide cyber defence in Hungary.
The situation of NATO members regarding cyber defence is mapped by experts under the leadership of NATO’s Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence. This study is a part of a series that displays the national cyber defence organizations of NATO allies, the tasks of these organizations, and ultimately these countries’ capabilities in cyber defence, thereby providing an opportunity to compare their situation in cyber security.
The study reviewing domestic cyber defence organizations is available here.
The University of Public Service is actively tightening its relations with China, as this year two of our professors were again invited by the China Association for Military Science and the China Institute for International Strategic Studies to attend the conference on security and defense policy in Beijing.
Not only our Faculty of International and European Studies, but also Hungary was represented by Dr. Sándor P. Szabó and Dr. Zoltán Szenes, the heads of the Chinese Public Administration, Economy and Society Research Center, and the Department of International Security Studies respectively on this high-level conference held on the 16th to 18th of October. The central topic of discussion in this year was the security challenges, hazards and threats in the region under the title: „Security and Cooperation in the Asia-Pacific: Realities and Visions”.
Apart from the four plenary lectures dealing with the following topics: “Asia-Pacific Security Trends: Opportunities and Challenges”, “Asia-Pacific Security Concepts: Innovation and Practice”, “Asia-Pacific Maritime Security—Risks and Management” and “Regional Terrorism—Roots and Solutions”; seven main sections were discussing the following topics: “Asia-Pacific Security and Responsibilities of the Major Countries”, “ASEAN Community Building”, “Regional Counter-Terrorism Cooperation”, “Security of Sea Lines of Communication”, “Code of Conduct in Cyberspace”, “Cooperation in Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Operations” and “Asia-Pacific Security Cooperation: Roles of Think Tanks”. One panel of the discussion on The role of Think Tanks in the security cooperations in the Asia-Pacific region was presided and moderated by professor Szenes.
The delegation of the University of North Georgia (UNG) paid a two-day visit at the National University of Public Service. The representatives were welcomed today by Prof. Dr. András Patyi Rector of NUPS who applauded the opportunity of future cooperation between the two institutions.
After introducing the university, Prof. Dr. András Patyi emphasized the importance of state science, security studies and public administration studies while also reminding that nowadays the importance of military sciences is not sufficiently acknowledged. He pointed out that the military and military sciences are extremely complex areas, since soldiers not only have to deal with strictly military matters. For example, the thorough knowledge of the state and society is vital for the soldiers’ contribution to the re-organization of a state in missions.
Dr. (Col. Ret.) Billy E. Wells, Senior Vice President for Leadership and Global Engagement at UNG reminded that the American delegation is thankful for the opportunity to contact NUPS. He noted that UNG lays great emphasis on international cooperation and the process of internationalization which is especially true in the case of East-central European relations. The institution pays great attention to foreign language courses in various European languages available to cadets. He added that their intention is to initiate a student and faculty exchange programme within the following years, and that Hungary’s historical past and geopolitical situation provides a unique opportunity for American students to become acquainted with East-central Europe.
The University of North Georgia is a state university that has 5 campuses and provides several programmes at the Bachelor, Master and PhD level. These programmes include inter alia Master programmes dealing with history, public administration and international affairs. Furthermore, UNG includes the Military College of Georgia as well which is responsible for the training of cadets. The contact between NUPS an UNG was established this summer when representatives of the two institutions met at the International Military Academy Forum.
The delegation of the University of North Georgia will continue their discussions with members of the Faculty of Military Sciences and Officer Training and the Faculty of International and European Studies.
On the evening of 21 October 2015 the Zrínyi Hall of the Ludovika main building turned into an Ambassador’s salon once more. The second guest of this year's program series was the Ambassador of the Republic of Serbia to Hungary who took the baton from his Czech colleague. H.E. Rade Drobac told the public in his opening speech that the current Serbian government is focusing on three main topics: the preservation of political stability, the maintenance of regional and international peace as well as the sustenance of economic development. He emphasized that a governing body can only be considered effective until it follows the internationally recognized laws, respects the territorial sovereignty and is committed to stay away from the internal affairs of other countries. As he said: “honour your neighbour and your neighbour is going to respect you.”
In view of the Hungarian-Serbian relations it was said that the two countries have never been on better terms as the states are mutually supporting the minority groups that live in their territories and Hungary is supporting the EU accession of its Southern neighbour. The ambassador also pointed out that the two nations are tied together by their geopolitical situation as well. Issues of energy, transport and migration are parts of the daily agenda and the solution to the main problems lies in cooperation. There are no isolated, independent responses as they only give way to misunderstanding.
The opening speech was followed by a roundtable discussion on which dr. Norbert Tóth, acting Vice-Dean for Education at the Faculty of International and European Studies, the host of the evening welcomed dr. János Hóvári, former Deputy Secretary of State for Global Affairs and Andrea Orosz representing the Institute for Foreign Affairs and Trade. Regarding the EU aspirations of the Republic of Serbia the question was raised whether the recognition of Kosovo as an independent state might not be a prerequisite for accession. In his answer the ambassador stressed the fact that his country will never regard Kosovo as a neighbour but a part of its own.
Text: Dorottya Pétery
Photos: Dénes Szilágyi
Angel from the heaven
Now Go in Haste
To charred and freezing Budapest.
There, where amid the Russian tanks
No bells are tolling out in thanks,
Where Christmas doesn’t sparkle now,
No golden walnuts deck the bough,
Nothing but cold and shivering hunger.
Teach them to comprehend their anger.
Speak it aloud out of the night:
Angel, report a miraculous sight.
Flap your wings fast and furiously
As the wind: they’re waiting desperately.
Don’t tell of the world outside,
Where candles shine at Christmastide,
Warm houses with their laden tables,
The priest’s uplifting parables;
The tissues rustles round the gifts,
Wise words and clever plans uplift,
Where sparklers glitter on the trees:
Angel, speak miracle to these.
Tell them this wonder of the world,
The Christmas tree of poor folk snarled
In Silent Nights began to burn;
Now many cross themselves and turn,
Around the world, to stare and stare;
Some comprehend, some unaware
Shake heads: for many it’s too much.
They pray, repulsed at what they watch:
Not candy canes hung from this tree
But the nations’ Christ, sad Hungary.
Many of them pass by instead:
The troops who left it stabbed for death;
The Pharisee who got his price;
The one who denied had denied it thrice;
Who washed his hands off in its bowl,
For thirty coins sold out its soul,
And as he shamed it, cursed and flayed,
He ate its body, drank its blood.
Now many nations stand and stare,
But speak to it? – not one will dare.
It speaks no more. does not accuse,
But watches, like Christ from the Cross.
This Christmas tree is very strange,
Brought by the devil or an Angel?—
Those who are dicing for his clothes
They know not what they do, and those
Who sniff and howl, they may suppose
The secret’s underneath their nose:
This Christmas tree is stranger now:
Hungarians hang from every bough.
The world speaks of miraculous sights,
Priests prattle of heroic fights,
The timid statesman patronizes,
The Holy Father canonizes.
And every order, each estate of
Mankind asks, What’s this in aid of?
Why didn’t they, as asked to, die out?
Sit waiting for the end in quiet?
Why were the heavens rent asunder?
Because “ENOUGH!” one people thundered.
And many could not understand
What tidal wave flooded this land.
What did the ranks of nations shy at?
One people cried out. Then fell quiet.
But many ask: What caused these groans?
Who wrote these laws from meat and bones?
More and more ask: What did they do?
They stammer, they don’t have a clue,
—Those who had always known it freely—
“Is Freedom such a big thing really?”
Angel, let it be understood:
New life will always spring from blood.
They’ve mingled as the centuries pass –
The Child, the Shepherd and the ass –
In dreams beside the manger bed.
If Life turns all that’s living dead,
They still protect the miraculous birth,
Stand watch above it with their breath.
Because the Star shines, dawn breaks open:
Go tell them this –
Angel from Heaven.
New York, December 1956
/The Withering World: Sándor Márai. Translated from the Hungarian by John M. Ridland and Peter V. Czipott/
The National University of Public Service is hosting the Israel-Hungary Academic Forum of partner universities in Budapest on 20-21 October, focusing on security, competitiveness, innovation and sustainable research and development.
"Relations between Hungary and Israel are determined by relations between people, and this makes scientific cooperation important," Israeli ambassador to Hungary Ilan Mor said at the opening event.
Amongst others the University of Szeged, Eotvos Lorand University and the University of Miskolc are participating from the Hungarian side, while the University of Haifa, the Hebrew University and the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev are represented from Israel.
The rector of NUPS, Prof. dr. András Patyi, welcomed the opportunity to work with Israeli scientists and told those present that the cooperation between institutes of higher education is an important goal considering the future of both nations. As he said, the main aim of NUPS is building and maintaining good relationships with other universities all across the globe.
At the end of the first day, the participants signed a joint memorandum supporting strengthening higher educational and research cooperation ties between the two countries.
The Institute of the Sciences of State and Governance of National University has introduced the Good State and Governance Report 2015 to the public at the conference of International Research Society for Public Management (IRSPM) hosted by NUPS in Budapest between 15-16th of October. The Report presents an autonomous, scientifically grounded measurement and founded on methodological and statistical indicators to measure changes in governance capabilities at specified time intervals.
The report, as specified by Dr. Norbert Kis, Vice-Rector for Continuing Education and International Affairs, is not aimed to replace the internationally used ratings and is not a response to those. As the measurement of government performance is inseparable from the given country’s socio-economic position, its special attributes and problems, as well as from the targets set by the government, developing a set if indicators that would be applicable in national context. The Report’s primary target audiences are the players and professional bodies and epistemic communities involved in evaluating possible government decisions.
Dr. Krisztián Kádár has stressed that in elaborating the measurement tools, the researchers’ goal was to look at the mechanism that affect the efficiency of the government performance. Therefore, the measurement structure of the Good State and Governance is formed by four hierarchical levels. The first level (1) is the complex phenomenon of the good state, below this uppermost level are the areas of influence (2). Areas of influence express the interrelationships between major sectors of economics, society and public administration, which can be captured either separately or comprehensively. These provide a measurable picture of the government capabilities fundamentally determining the functioning of the Good State and Governance. The indicators measure the strengths and weaknesses of government capabilities across the six areas of influence listed below:
· Security and trust in government;
· Public well-being;
· Financial stability and economic competitiveness;
· Effective public administration.
The third level (3) is formed by the dimensions. While each area of influence pertains to a major, general subject area, it is through the dimensions that the strongest specific phenomena are captured within a given area of influence. A dimension can be homogeneous, that is, the indicators used in the system are really different measurements pertaining to the same area and, accordingly, are measured on the same scale. The approach of the Report, in contrast to this, is multi-dimensional (heterogeneous), since according to its starting point, the areas of influence of governance are not units and can thus be broken down into further sub-areas.
In order to measure these sub-areas, indicators associated with the individual dimensions are used to make up the fourth level (4). The complete set of all associated indicators forms the indicator system. Arranged into groups, the indicators fit into sub-areas, which go hand in hand with the methodological variegation, in that the indicators measure a variety of scales that cannot be directly compared.