Other participants of the event were Prof. Dr. András Patyi, Rector; Prof. Dr. József Padányi, Eng. Major General, Vice-Rector for Science; Dr. Gábor Kovács, Pol. Brigadier General, Vice-Rector for Education; Dr. Judit Nagy, Pol.Col., Vice-Rector for International Affairs and Prof. Dr. Norbert Kis, Dean of Faculty of Science of Public Governance and Public Administration. After the strategic meeting in the morning with the leadership of the university, Bonita Jacobs had a tour around the Ludovika Campus where she visited the newly-built educational units and the Ludovika Main building. Later, she negotiated with the management of the Faculty of Military Sciences and Officer Training regarding the extension of the agreement.
The relation between the two institutes has begun in October 2015 when the representatives of UNG first visited our university. At that time they initiated the signing of a bilateral partnership agreement in respect of civilian student and officer cadet exchanges and internship programmes. Subsequently, during another visit in autumn 2016 in Hungary, the American and Hungarian parties agreed on new possibilities for cooperating in cybersecurity and defense. The continuous implementation of this cooperation was also supported by the Fulbright scolarship program earned by Csaba Bakos Lieutenant Colonel, instructor at the Faculty of Military Sciences and Officer Training. Within the framework of this programme, he is performing research and educational activities at the American partner institute until July 2017. As part of the agreement, both institutes encourage its students to participate in summer universities and internship possibilities. They provide research, educationl, student mobility opportunities for each other. In May 2017 two American cadets have arrived to the Faculty of Military Sciences and Officer Training for a two months period. They shared their personal experiences with the Management during a lunch together. To maintain reciprocity, two students from NUPS will travel to UNG and they will spend five weeks there. Also, in September 2017 another student from UNG will arrive who is going to spend a nine-week-long internship at the International Relations Office.
The UNG was founded in January 2013. However taking its predecessors into account, it is a higher education institution with a history dating back to 1873. It is one of the 6 federally designated senior military colleges in the USA. Similarly to NUPS, UNG was also established after the merger of five independent, separate institutes. UNG includes civilian (approx. 80%, 1100 persons) and officer cadets as well (approx. 750 persons in the brigade). It offers a broad range of academic programs with more than 50 undergraduate areas (such as International Affairs, Political Sciene, Marketing, Communication) and around 15 Master programs including Master of Science with a major in Criminal Justice, Master of Public Administration. The cadets are eligible for the undergraduate programs therefore all students graduating in the military studies will have one or two other civilian degree certificate(s), which enhance(s) their competitiveness in the labor market. Several generals of the US Army graduated from the institution. The planning of Degrees and Programs is characterized by comprehensive approach from two aspects: On one hand, the institute offers a parallel educational program both in military and civilian area. Besides that, students need to spend at least a half year in any of the foreign partner institutions. The university is also exemplary in terms of training plans as well as for the coexistence of civilian and professional values and culture.
The Rector of the National University of Public Service has recently announced a tender for its professors and researchers entitled as „Good Governance Knowledge Transfer Program NUPS – USA” The aim of the application is to promote the research and training experience of selected researchers within an American partner university of NUPS durnig the 2017/2018 academic year and to use this experience to further enhance the training and public service programs at NUPS. The winners can spend four to six months in one of the partner institutes of NUPS in the USA, such as the University of North Georgia.
Dr. Judit Nagy, Vice-Rector for International Affairs at NUPS highlighted that it was an honour for the University to organize the Hungarian-Vietnamese Investment professional Conference during which the participants discussed and analyzed administrative and political matters. The Conference welcomed guests from five renowned institutions. She added that, beside highlighting professional issues and facilitating international knowledge transfer, the event was also significant for the reason that NUPS endeavors to sign a partnership agreement with two Vietnamese universities with the aim of promoting education, research and mobility.
Prof. Dr. András Patyi, being the host of the event expressed: “I’m pleased to see that NUPS gave place to this high level conference”. The Rector emphasized that knowing Vietnam and cooperating with it is a fundamental task for each country and EU member states as Vietnam is one of the most dynamically developping countries in Southeast Asia. He added that mutual recognition and good experience shall be the basis of a future friendship.
On behalf of the Ministry of Justice Krisztián Kecsmár welcomed the guests. The Minister of State for European and International Judicial Cooperation said that the two countries have a traditionally well managed bilateral relationship: a bilateral investment treaty and an agreement to avoid double taxation are in place. The Secretary of State also described the role of arbitral tribunals and ordinary courts. As he said, Vietnam, as well as Hungary, is part of the 1958 UN Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards, which ensures cross-border enforcement of arbitration decisions. The Secretary of State informed the participants that a new Hungarian Arbitration Act was adopted in 2017, which places its organizational framework on new foundations. In Hungary, the review of the bilateral contract has been planned for years. Referring to this initiative, Krisztián Kecsmár announced that Vietnam is going to be the first country with whom the Hungarian state will start the negotiations.
Le Tien Chau, Rector of the Hanoi University and Deputy Minister of Justice reflected on the history of Hungarian-Vietnamese diplomatic relations: Progress has been made between the two countries by facilitating high-level delegation exchanges in the past ten years and also by signing fifteen agreements between the two parties. He stated that the Vietnamese Government has put great emphasis on cooperation with Hungary and they intend to invite more Hungarian investors to Vietnam. They beleive that this conference was a great platform for higher education professionals to share their experiences and knowledge in the given areas.
From the University of Szeged Prof. Dr. Attila Badó, professor at the Faculty of Law and Political Sciences has welcomed the participants on behalf of the university’s Rector. The Head of the Institute of Comparetive Law at Szeged said that it was challenging to organize the event given the fact that it required the cooperation of four universities and two ministries but because of the importance of the topics, they wanted to make it happen.
During the conference, the following topics among others were on the agenda: importance of free trade agreements, standards and values; past and present factors affecting the Vietnamese jurisdiction and regulations; the economic strategy of the Vietnamese government; the legal and economic environment of domestic investments; the European common markets and international trade and investment agreements.
The project was funded by PADOP-2.1.2.-CCHOP-15-2016-00001 - priority project titled „ Public Service Development Establishing Good Governance”.
For more details, see the July issue of Bonum Publicum.
The event was opened by Mr. Christopher Brown of United States EUCOM Joint Cyber Center. Mr. Brown thanked the Hungarian Ministry of Defence for its cooperation, and also explained that the focus of this event is on the development and build-up of cyber programs, and last but not least cyber-security threats. It was also a vital event as far as cyber-security trainings were concerned: next to networking, the participants can also get to know the good practices of other nations in this field.
From the Hungarian Ministry of Defence’s side, Colonel Talabos Tibor of the Electronic Information-protection Department greeted the participants. He also stressed the importance of the summit and also making the public aware that there is a cyber-space around them and there are dangerous threats involved in that. Col. Donald Baker, Senior Defense Attaché of the United States Embassy in Budapest expressed his content on seeing both civilian and military experts at the event, since both side are important and he hoped that the cooperation can continues into the future.
Lt Col. Jose Luis Quintero Villarroya from the Coordination Branch of the Spanish Joint Cyber Command continued the presentation talking about the Spanish methods of cyber-security. He told the audience that the cyber-space is a new phenomenon, which has no clear borders yet. Cyber- attacks threaten nations with their incredible speed and unpredictability. Spain is planning and executing various cyber-military actions since 2013 and consider guarding the cyber-space as their main task. Lt Col. Quintero Villarroya finished his speech further reminding everybody about the importance of cooperation in cyber issues.
The program continued with Col. Douglas Huffman, Cyber Operations Advisor to US EUCOM who introduced the Center founded in 2010 and encompassing 133 teams with 6000 staff. Their motto is partnerships and team work, since these never before seen cyber-attacks can only be fend off jointly. Col. Huffman underlined that no nation should face this threat alone.
Lt Col. Michael Fraas, Chief Future Development at the recently founded German Cyber Command continued by introducing the new Command and also remarked that, in a few years, cyber operations are going to be just as integral in any military operation like army or air force assets. The objectives of the newly established Command are still under development, but they will definitely include the defence of Germany from cyber-attacks, innovative IT management, cyber and information security including cryptology, and it also includes HR as a cornerstone of the whole organisation. Lt Col. Fraas netioned that there is a lack of staff in this field the the University of Federal Armed Forces in Munich is supposed to change that. Currently there are 200 students attending it with full-time scholarship for four years. Here they gain the necessary knowledge, so later they can work as experts in this profession. The Command places great emphasis on equal right too, so female officers and mother can participate in the program as well.
Col. Károly Kassai from the Cyber Defence Centre of the Military National Security Service in Hungary concluded the first morning session of the event. He said that the first Cyber Security Strategy of Hungary was created in 2013, revised in 2015 and that they are working on a revision this year too. There is also a ministry program running since 2015 until 2018 that aims at modernising the IT systems including cyber security measures. Experts have to face with the use of false terminology or the complete lack of it, and also the organisation of topical trainings.
During the course of the two-day-long event, experts will be discussing the role of military cyber-security experts, the training of cyber inspectors and how can one build a world class system of security measures.
The event held on 15 June, 2017. generated much public interest and distinguished experts of various security fields shared their knowledge with a packed Zrínyi Hall at the Ludovika Campus. The discussion was moderated by Prof. Dr. Zoltán Szenes form the International Security Studies Department at Faculty of International and European Studies of NUPS, while the guests and the audience was greeted by Dr. Judit Nagy, Vice-Rector for International Affairs on behalf of NUPS.
The Vice-Rector welcomed all the distinguished guests, the ambassadors, experts and all members of the audience. She highlighted that it is an honour for the National University of Public Service to cooperate with so many embassies on such a serious and complex topic.
The Vice-Rector’s opening remarks were followed by the first part of the panel discussion, where military and security experts shared their view on the challenges of hybrid warfare, especially in the context of Ukraine and Russian hybrid warfare tactics. Before the experts’ session however, Chargé d’Affaires of the United States Embassy to Hungary David J. Kostelancik gave a speech on the vitally important situation of Ukraine. Mr. Kostelancik clearly stated how important Ukraine is not only to the United Stated, but also to NATO and all European countries. He explained that this new warfare – hybrid warfare – is conducted by Russia with the aim of damaging Ukraine and its ties to the West. Ukraine is intimidated, violent separatists use arms, energy is used as a weapon against this sovereign state and “a smokescreen of disinformation” is raised by its Eastern neighbour. All these activities blend traditional warfare with new elements in order to achieve Russia’s strategic aims. The Chargé d’Affaires of the United States Embassy urged Russia to honour the Minsk Agreement because the United States stands firm in the support of Ukraine.
The US Chargé d’Affaires was followed by Her Excellency Liubov Nepop, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Ukraine to Hungary. Her Excellency’s speech echoed Mr. Kostelancik earlier remarks and clearly stated the situation in her country. According to her, despite more than ten thousand people lost their lives since the beginning of the war that it is not only contested by military means. Russia uses disinformation, propaganda, cyber-attacks, and energy attacks in order to punish Ukraine for its Trans-Atlantic ties as well as cooperation with Europe. She deemed this action as part of the ancient “Divide and rule “principle and urged Ukraine, Europe, the United States and all its allies to stand united against such a threat.
First of the experts to share his opinion was Colonel Gábor Boldizsár, from the Faculty of Military Sciences and Officer Training. Colonel Boldizsár started his presentation first by defining the term “hybrid warfare”. Then he drew on his extensive field experience in military missions to both Afghanistan and Kosovo. Colonel Boldizsár also set up a theoretical framework in his speech by identifying 4 phases of hybrid warfare. In this concluding thoughts he mentioned that Hungary stands as an ally of Ukraine and Hungarian military scientists help in the development of Ukrainian military higher education.
The second presentation of the session a joint effort by military aviation experts Colonel Dr. Zoltán Krajnc and 1st Lieutenant János Csengeri, both represents the Faculty of Military Science and Officer Training. In their two-part presentation they underlined the role of airpower in hybrid warfare situations. Dr. Krajnc mentioned why airpower is one of the ideal tools of hybrid warfare, since it has “minimal intrusiveness, rapid response, rapid mobility, rapid engagement and improved strategic, operational, and tactical situational awareness“. In the second part of the talk Mr. Csengeri identified 3 aggression categories "nonviolent subversion, covert violent actions, conventional warfare supported by political subversion” and also showed an example of a hybrid conduct of war in Kosovo in 1999, when conventional weapons, terrorism against the population, and irregular forces were used too.
The final expert of the first section was Dr. András Rácz senior lecturer at the Pázmány Péter Catholic University. Dr. Rácz is a renowned expert of the topic as he was the first person in Hungarian to write about hybrid war. Dr. Rácz underlined how much Russia uses and develops its hybrid strategies. That is it part of the official Russian military doctrine to conduct such operations and that is has evolved a lot since 2008 when the Russians first used modern hybrid strategy against Georgia. He also made it clear that the strategy works undeniably well for Russia as it is illustrated by the situation in Ukraine and also in Syrian since the Assad regime is still has not be toppled. “There is no reason to believe that Russia will stop using this method in the foreseeable future” – said András Rácz. In fact, he pointed to other developments of Russian strategy that have been used lately, such as naval and long distance strikes in Syria – the first time their warplanes engaged in action outside of their country of since the Soviet-Afghan war in the 1980’s – and also interfering with election in both the United States and France. Dr. Rácz concluded that Russia is an adversary that is constantly improving its strategy and we must quickly learn how to counter it, which is he believes can be done by more cooperation.
The speeches were followed by a question and answer session where, among others His Excellency Petri Tuomi-Nikula, Ambassador of Finland to Hungary, and Her Excellency Isabelle Poupart, Canadian Ambassador to Ambassador to Hungary, Slovenia and Bosnia and Herzegovina raised issues for discussion.
The second part of the panel discussion continued following a short coffee break and saw speeches from Péter Kaderják, the Director of the Regional Centre for Energy Policy Research at the Corvinus University of Budapest, Dr. Botond Feledy, Director of Saint Ignatius College and Dr. Csaba Krasznay, director of the Cyber-Security Academia at NUPS. Mr. Feledy talked about civilian and military cooperation in cyber-security, and how fake news can be combated. Mr. Kaderják detailed how energy is used as a weapon against Ukraine and how the gas supply systems in Central and Eastern Europe. Last but not least, Mr. Krasznay presented a case study in detail about a Russian cyber-attack on a Ukrainian power plant, where a malware was used as a weapon. In his final remarks he stressed that cyber-security education is the easiest way to counter such threats and that is why NUPS also places great emphasis on cyber-security education as part of the Cyber-Security Academia.
He recalled up on the fact that NUPS did huge steps towards establishing transatlantic cooperation even in 2016. This is one of the reasons why the American Studies Research Centre was established at the Faculty of International and European Studies. NUPS’s delegation visited Indiana University, University of North Georgia (UNG), Marymount University and George Washington University in May.
While visiting the University of North Georgia, The President of UNG Bonita Jacobs and the rector of NUPS András Patyi signed a memorandum of understanding regarding student mobility cooperation both for education and professional practice. As initiated in the cooperation, NUPS already hosts two students from UNG, while a researcher from NUPS is working at the American partners and he is soon followed by two students in August. UNG, as its name suggests is located in the state of Georgia, and has 4 campuses with 18 thousand students state-wide. Just like NUPS, this university was established via the integration of various institutions. It is not entirely a military academy, since they have many BA level programs offered for civilians, and the 800 officer cadets may take part in these too. Officer training places great emphasis on gaining international experience: cadets and students alike have to spend one semester abroad. UNG is one of the six principal officer training schools in the United States, and “the greatest evidence of the education’s quality here is that many generals of the United States Army have graduated from here” – told the Rector. UNG’s programs offered cover a wide range of various fields including military sciences, political science and international relations, and these all offer great cooperation opportunities between the two universities.
Marymount University – which was established in 1950 as an independent Catholic school, and which is located just a few minutes outside of Washington – and NUPS has already signed a five-year-long memorandum of understanding last year. Maymount University offers many undergraduate, graduate and doctoral programs to its students. Their cooperation with NUPS mainly centres on criminalistics, crime investigation and cyber-security but it also strengthens the academic ties of the two countries and provides an opportunity for researchers and lecturers to participate in joint projects. During NUPS’s recent visit, they discussed all these matters and agreed on a one-week-long, intensive criminalistics training held at NUPS in the autumn.
Indiana University – established in 1820 – has 8 campuses in the state of Indiana and has over 140 thousand altogether. There are 50 thousand students studying at the Bloomington Campus alone. Bloomington has an extremely wide international network with more than 300 overseas programs in 50 countries and these allow one in every four students to participate in student mobility initiatives. The delegation discussed the way of possible cooperation in the future, mainly in international studies, public administration and sustainability. These fields all could fit into the activities of the Faculty of International and European Studies and the Faculty of Water Sciences.
The George Washington University – founded in 1820 – is the largest tertiary level institution in the Washington DC area. It has really high quality partnerships in a wide variety of fields and research programs. NUPS’ delegation negotiated focusing mostly on international studies, public administration and political sciences. Prof. Dr. Patyi highlighted that both institutions are open to hosting young researchers as part of the cooperation too.
The rectors also remarked that in 2016 the university’s partner network got expanded. Under the umbrella of the ERASMUS+ program, 12 agreements were signed, and 10 other such cooperation was established in other ways. These also include many institutions outside of Europe, such as the Federal Ministry of Water Resources of Nigeria, the Hungarian-American Fulbright Commission, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, the Korean National Defence University, the LEPL - Academy of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia, The Russian Presidental Academy of National Economy and Public Administration North-West Institute of Management (RANEPA), the Shanghai International Studies University, and the The University of Defence in Belgrade. Furthermore, the extended the cooperation with the Tom Lantos Institute too. As part of the government’s Makovecz Program, NUPS is working together with three Hungarian schools outside of Hungary too. These are the Babeș-Bolyai University, University of Constantine the Philosopher and the Sapientia Hungarian University of Transylvania.